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8. Copyright Basics: What exceptions exist?

U.S. Copyright Law includes exceptions that limit the rights of the copyright holder. These exceptions allow for certain uses of copyrighted material without seeking permission . Congress created these exceptions in order to balance the rights of creators and users so that certain socially beneficial uses of copyrighted works are not prevented by creators.

Some of these exceptions include:

    "Fair Use" Sec. 107 Fair Use allows for various types of uses of copyrighted works. This is the most flexible of the exceptions in the copyright law. To learn more check out the Fair Use tutorial.
    "Reproduction for Libraries" Sec. 108 Section 108 of the Copyright Act allows libraries and archives to make copies of copyrighted works under very specific conditions. Under this exception, a patron can ask for the library to make a copy of a journal article or portion of a book in the library’s collection as long as it is for the patron’s personal study.
    "First Sale" doctrine Sec. 109 The first sale doctrine allows you to distribute a legally acquired physical copy of a copyrighted work. This allows libraries to lend books and individuals to lend or sell used books, movies or CDs.
    "Classroom Display or Performance" Sec. 110 Under Section 110(1) it is okay to display or perform copyrighted works in a classroom setting. This allows a teacher to show a video or students to create and display multimedia projects in class. Section 110(2) allows for the streaming of audio or video works in a course management system, such as Carmen, as long as the work is not downloadable.


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